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Yield (engineering)

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Yielding definition

Postby JoJozahn В» 24.03.2020

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In materials science and engineering , the yield point is the point on a stress-strain curve that indicates the limit of elastic behavior and the beginning of plastic behavior.

Prior to the yield point, a material will deform elastically and will return to its original shape when the applied stress is removed. Once the yield point is passed, some fraction of the deformation will be permanent and non-reversible and is known as plastic deformation. The yield strength or yield stress is a material property and is the stress corresponding to the yield point at which the material begins to deform plastically.

The yield strength is often used to determine the maximum allowable load in a mechanical component, since it represents the upper limit to forces that can be applied without producing permanent deformation. In some materials, such as aluminium, there is a gradual onset of non-linear behavior, making the precise yield point difficult to determine. In such a case, the offset yield point or proof stress is taken as the stress at which 0. Yielding is a gradual failure mode which is normally not catastrophic , unlike ultimate failure.

A variety of yield criteria have been developed for different materials. It is often difficult to precisely define yielding due to the wide variety of stress—strain curves exhibited by real materials. In addition, there are several possible ways to define yielding: [9]. Yielded structures have a lower stiffness, leading to increased deflections and decreased buckling strength.

The structure will be permanently deformed when the load is removed, and may have residual stresses. Engineering metals display strain hardening, which implies that the yield stress is increased after unloading from a yield state. Yield strength testing involves taking a small sample with a fixed cross-section area and then pulling it with a controlled, gradually increasing force until the sample changes shape or breaks.

This is called a Tensile Test. Indentation hardness correlates roughly linearly with tensile strength for most steels, but measurements on one material cannot be used as a scale to measure strengths on another. However, for critical situations, tension testing is done to eliminate ambiguity. There are several ways in which crystalline and amorphous materials can be engineered to increase their yield strength. By altering dislocation density, impurity levels, grain size in crystalline materials , the yield strength of the material can be fine-tuned.

This occurs typically by introducing defects such as impurities dislocations in the material. To move this defect plastically deforming or yielding the material , a larger stress must be applied.

This thus causes a higher yield stress in the material. While many material properties depend only on the composition of the bulk material, yield strength is extremely sensitive to the materials processing as well. Where deforming the material will introduce dislocations , which increases their density in the material. This increases the yield strength of the material since now more stress must be applied to move these dislocations through a crystal lattice.

Dislocations can also interact with each other, becoming entangled. By alloying the material, impurity atoms in low concentrations will occupy a lattice position directly below a dislocation, such as directly below an extra half plane defect.

This relieves a tensile strain directly below the dislocation by filling that empty lattice space with the impurity atom. Where the presence of a secondary phase will increase yield strength by blocking the motion of dislocations within the crystal. A line defect that, while moving through the matrix, will be forced against a small particle or precipitate of the material.

Dislocations can move through this particle either by shearing the particle or by a process known as bowing or ringing, in which a new ring of dislocations is created around the particle. Where a buildup of dislocations at a grain boundary causes a repulsive force between dislocations.

As grain size decreases, the surface area to volume ratio of the grain increases, allowing more buildup of dislocations at the grain edge. Since it requires a lot of energy to move dislocations to another grain, these dislocations build up along the boundary, and increase the yield stress of the material. Also known as Hall-Petch strengthening, this type of strengthening is governed by the formula:.

The theoretical yield strength of a perfect crystal is much higher than the observed stress at the initiation of plastic flow. That experimentally measured yield strength is significantly lower than the expected theoretical value can be explained by the presence of dislocations and defects in the materials.

Indeed, whiskers with perfect single crystal structure and defect-free surfaces have been shown to demonstrate yield stress approaching the theoretical value. For example, nanowhiskers of copper were shown to undergo brittle fracture at 1 GPa, [19] a value much higher than the strength of bulk copper and approaching the theoretical value. The theoretical yield strength can be estimated by considering the process of yield at the atomic level. In a perfect crystal, shearing results in the displacement of an entire plane of atoms by one interatomic separation distance, b, relative to the plane below.

In order for the atoms to move, considerable force must be applied to overcome the lattice energy and move the atoms in the top plane over the lower atoms and into a new lattice site. The stress displacement curve of a plane of atoms varies sinusoidally as stress peaks when an atom is forced over the atom below and then falls as the atom slides into the next lattice point. Single atomic distance displacements , this equation becomes:. A yield criterion often expressed as yield surface, or yield locus, is a hypothesis concerning the limit of elasticity under any combination of stresses.

There are two interpretations of yield criterion: one is purely mathematical in taking a statistical approach while other models attempt to provide a justification based on established physical principles. The following represent the most common yield criterion as applied to an isotropic material uniform properties in all directions.

Other equations have been proposed or are used in specialist situations. Maximum Principal Stress Theory — by W. M Rankine Yield occurs when the largest principal stress exceeds the uniaxial tensile yield strength. Although this criterion allows for a quick and easy comparison with experimental data it is rarely suitable for design purposes.

This theory gives good predictions for brittle materials. Maximum Principal Strain Theory — by St. Yield occurs when the maximum principal strain reaches the strain corresponding to the yield point during a simple tensile test. In terms of the principal stresses this is determined by the equation:.

Total Strain Energy Theory — This theory assumes that the stored energy associated with elastic deformation at the point of yield is independent of the specific stress tensor.

Thus yield occurs when the strain energy per unit volume is greater than the strain energy at the elastic limit in simple tension.

For a 3-dimensional stress state this is given by:. Maximum Distortion Energy Theory von Mises yield criterion — This theory proposes that the total strain energy can be separated into two components: the volumetric hydrostatic strain energy and the shape distortion or shear strain energy. It is proposed that yield occurs when the distortion component exceeds that at the yield point for a simple tensile test.

This theory is also known as the von Mises yield criterion. Based on a different theoretical underpinning this expression is also referred to as octahedral shear stress theory. The yield surfaces corresponding to these criteria have a range of forms. However, most isotropic yield criteria correspond to convex yield surfaces. When a metal is subjected to large plastic deformations the grain sizes and orientations change in the direction of deformation.

As a result, the plastic yield behavior of the material shows directional dependency. Under such circumstances, the isotropic yield criteria such as the von Mises yield criterion are unable to predict the yield behavior accurately. Several anisotropic yield criteria have been developed to deal with such situations.

Some of the more popular anisotropic yield criteria are:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. True elastic limit Proportionality limit Elastic limit Offset yield strength. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Archived from the original on 22 June Retrieved 15 June Archived from the original on 11 June Retrieved 10 September Archived from the original on 14 October Retrieved 18 August Archived from the original PDF on 25 March Howatson, P.

Lund and J. Todd, "Engineering Tables and Data", p. Engineering Materials and their Applications. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics. Pavlina and C. Mechanical behavior of materials. Waveland Press. Nano Letters. Namespaces Article Talk.

Views Read Edit View history. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. High-density polyethylene HDPE. Stainless steel AISI — cold-rolled. Cast iron 4.

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Re: yielding definition

Postby Nakasa В» 24.03.2020

Or 'unessential'? Pavlina and C. Indeed, whiskers with perfect single crystal structure and defect-free surfaces have been http://mosaverha.tk/the/sonic-the-hedgehog-icons.php to demonstrate yieldng stress approaching the theoretical value.

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Postby Faelkree В» 24.03.2020

Love words? Todd, "Engineering Tables and Data", p. There are several ways in which crystalline and amorphous materials can be engineered to increase definitioj yield strength.

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Postby Tolrajas В» 24.03.2020

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Postby Zuran В» 24.03.2020

Log In. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced definition free! Current yield is the coupon yield on a bond at a specific point in yieldig time before the bond maturity. It is often difficult to precisely define yielding the trees animal to the wide variety of stress—strain curves exhibited by real materials.

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Re: yielding definition

Postby Gomi В» 24.03.2020

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Postby Zulum В» 24.03.2020

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Postby JoJor В» 24.03.2020

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Postby Dout В» 24.03.2020

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Postby Bralar В» 24.03.2020

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Postby Kazizilkree В» 24.03.2020

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Postby Molkis В» 24.03.2020

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Choose your language. Click, "Engineering Tables and Data", p. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

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Re: yielding definition

Postby Sharamar В» 24.03.2020

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Postby Goltill В» 24.03.2020

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Re: yielding definition

Postby Bralar В» 24.03.2020

Phrasal verb yield to sth. Translator tool. Learn More about yield. Login or Register. The yield strength or yield stress is yielding material property and is the stress corresponding to definition yield point at which the material begins to deform plastically.

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Postby Dusar В» 24.03.2020

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Postby Kajizilkree В» 24.03.2020

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Postby Shakataxe В» 24.03.2020

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Postby Kazragar В» 24.03.2020

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Postby Nilrajas В» 24.03.2020

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Postby Tak В» 24.03.2020

This section does not cite any sources. This theory gives good predictions for brittle materials. Love words?

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Postby Zololkree В» 24.03.2020

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Postby Tokinos В» 24.03.2020

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Postby Sashakar В» 24.03.2020

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Postby Yomi В» 24.03.2020

Yields on gas and electricity shares are consistently high. Dictionary apps. Yielded structures have a lower stiffness, leading to increased deflections and decreased buckling strength.

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Postby Grogami В» 24.03.2020

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Postby Tular В» 24.03.2020

Engineering metals display strain hardening, which implies that the yield stress is increased after unloading from a yield state. Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics. Source Submit.

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Several anisotropic yield criteria have been developed to deal with such situations. Need even more definitions? From Cambridge English Corpus.

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Postby Tajora В» 24.03.2020

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Postby Salkis В» 24.03.2020

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